Wednesday, September 4, 2019

Wireless Sets of the 1st Airborne Division at Operation Market-Garden

One perspective on a military operation can be to view it as an equilateral triangle, or Venn diagram, with the three points of the triangle, or circles of the diagram, being; 1. Communications, 2. Logistics, and 3. Intelligence, hopefully with all three elements in equilibrium. However, as seen by the ranking, without effective communications any military operation is in immediate peril.

During Operation Market-Garden all three elements were found to be seriously wanting, obviously placing the operational field commanders in serious peril from the outset of the operation. In his official after-action report MajGen Robert E. “Roy” Urquhart, O.C. British 1stAirborne Division, was particularly vehement in his criticism of field communications. A direct quote:

“242. Royal Signals.
Communications within the Airborne Division and to the Base and the next higher formation need drastic revision and improvement. The sets at present in use are not satisfactory in all cases. The range attributed to sets was nearly always found to be greatly exaggerated.” (Author’s note: Given the English propensity toward understatement I would say that this is a comprehensively damning assessment.)

The basic radios in use during the operation were the Wireless Sets No.22, No.19HP,  No.18, No.68P, No.68 R/T, No.38 Mk II, and Wireless Sender no.76. The XXI Independent Company (Pathfinders) had their No.38 sets withdrawn just two weeks before the operation, and replaced with the vastly superior Wireless Set No.42.

A detailed analysis of communications during Operation Market-Garden can be found in this blog on page; https://arnhemjim.blogspot.com/p/operation-market-garden.html. Scroll down to 41. Liaison with main forces. Also specifically see; http://arnhemjim.blogspot.com/2011/04/communications-at-battle-of-arnhem.html. Within that article there is reference made to the following excellent in-depth assessment; http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1470243042000344777.

This specific article however, is only intended to provide the reader with a limited set of images and a brief set of specifications for the above listed wireless sets used during Operation Market-Garden, the Battle of Arnhem/Oosterbeek. Acknowledgement and gratitude are given to www.radiomuseum.org for images and information on the sets from their web site. 

Wireless Set No.22



MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.22 [Military] 
For model Wireless Set No.22, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Country: Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1942 
Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes:13:ARP34 ARDD5 VT52 VT52 VT52 ARP12 ARP12 ARP12
ARP12 ARP12 AR8 CV65 AR8
Main principle:  Transceiver
Wave bands:   ZF/IF 465 kHz
Short Wave (SW only) 
Details:
Power type and voltage:  Storage Battery for all
 (e.g. for car radios and amateur radios) / 12 Volt 
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org:
Model: Wireless Set No.22 - MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material: Metal case 
Shape:  Boatanchor (heavy military or commercial set). 
Dimensions (WHD): 17.5 x 8.5 x 13.5 inch / 445 x 216 x 343 mm
Range (Maximum): Voice 5 mi, Morse 20 mi. 
Notes:
Wireless Set No.22: double band transceiver covering 2-4,5 and 4,5-8 MHz, pout CW 1,5 Watts, telephony 1 Watt. Set consists of the transceiver itself and a separate power supply unit, the set is powered from 12 V (car) accumulator for heaters and driving a vibrator power supply for HT 300V at 80 mA.The set was intended as a primary vehicle station with facilities for quick removal from the vehicle to be used as a ground station.The general appearance, dimensions and frequency range resemble Wireless Set 19, but the set is technically completely different. A similar set has been produced in Australia as Wireless Set No.22 (Austr) or Wireless Set No.122 respectively. 
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg):  36.5 lb (36 lb 8 oz) / 16.571 kg 
Mentioned in Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Set No.19HP



MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.19HP [Military] 
For model Wireless Set No.19HP, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Country: Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1942
Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes: 15: 6K7G 6K8G 6K7G ARP35 or EF50 ARDD5 or EB34 ATS25 or 807 CV6 6K7G 6K7G 6V6G 6K7G 6V6G
Main principle:  Transceiver; Superheat with RF-stage; ZF/IF 465 kHz; 1 AF stage(s) 
Wave bands: 'A' setting 2-8 MHz, 'B' Setting 229-241 MHz Master Oscillator controlled.
Details:
Power type and voltage:  Wet Storage Battery (rechargeable) for all
 (e.g. for car radios and amateur radios) / 12 Volt 
Power output: 30 watts
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org: RF output: 'A' setting 2.5-9 watts
Model: Wireless Set No.19HP - MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material: Metal case 
Shape:  Boatanchor (heavy military or commercial set). 
Dimensions (WHD): Sender/receiver -17.5 x 8.5 x 12.255 inch / 445 x 210 x 311 mm; supply unit - 6 x 8.25 x 12.5 (152mm x 210 x 318 mm)
Range (Maximum): Voice 25 mi. 
Notes:
Only 2 sets employed by the Light Regiment RA at the Battle of Arnhem/Oosterbeek.
Wireless Set No. 19 Mark II: military double band transceiver used for communications between armoured vehicles and later general use; comes with three functional units in one cabinet: A set (shortwave communications), B set (VHF near range communications), on-board intercom.
A set: AM (1,5 - 2,5 W), MCW and CW (3 - 5 W), covers 2 - 8 MHz in two ranges (2-4,5 / 4,5 - 8 MHz), two mechanical presets.
B set: VHF (telephony, 0,4 W) in the range 229 - 241 MHz.
Pye introduced the W.S. 19 MK I transceiver in 1941, because of the frequency coverage of the A-set appeared to be too narrow, the MK II was introduced in 1942 with a coverage 2,0 to 8 MHz, split in two ranges. Later a special dial knob was introduced for easier tuning, which came with the Wireless Set 19 MK III, but was often mounted on the MK II sets. 
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg): 86.25 lb (39.12 kg)
Literature/Schemetics: Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Set No.18 



Country: Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1940 
Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes:  6: AR8 ATP4 ARP12 ARP12 ARP12 AR8
Main principle: Transceiver
Wave bands:  ZF/IF 465 kHz
Short Wave (SW only) 
Details:
Power type and voltage:  Dry Batteries / 150 & 3 Volt 
Loudspeaker: - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org:  Model:Wireless Set No.18– 
MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material:  Leather / canvas / plastic - over other material 
Shape:  Portable set > 8 inch (also usable without mains) 
Dimensions (WHD):  10.5 x 17.5 x 11 inch / 267 x 445 x 279 mm
Range (Maximum): Voice 4.8 mi., Morse 9.6 mi.  
Notes:
Wireless set No. 18: Short range man-pack transceiver covering 6 – 9 MHz, AM (A3) (CW, only in sets Mk.II / Mk.III), pout 0,25 Watt telephony; powered by LT 3 V and HT 150 V dry batteries; used by British Army for short range communications between company and battalion HQ or carried as man-pack on march; The original Wireless Set No.8 was produced around 1940, production was changed from the heavy steel cabinet to a lighweight version becoming the Wireless Set 18. Very similar sets have been produced in USA (Wireless Set No.48), in Canada (Wireless Set No.58) and Australia (Wireless Set No.108) In 1943, a low frequency variant has been developed, it became Wireless Set No.68.
Mentioned in:  Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Set No.68 P



MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.68 [Military]
For model Wireless Set No.68 P, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model):
From the collection of Royal Signals Museum, Blandford

Country:
Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1943 
Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes: 6:AR8 ATP4 ARP12 ARP12 ARP12 AR8
Main principle:  Transceiver
ZF/IF 465 kHz 
Wave bands:  Short Wave (SW only) 
Details:
Power type and voltage: Dry Batteries / 150 & 12 & 3 Volt 
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org:
Model:Wireless Set No.68 P- MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material:  Leather / canvas / plastic - over other material 
Shape:  Portable set > 8 inch (also usable without mains) 
Dimensions (WHD):  11 x 17.5 x 10.5 inch / 279 x 445 x 267 mm
Range (Maximum): Voice 4.8 mi., Morse 9.6 mi. 
Notes:
Wireless set No. 68 P: Short range man-pack transceiver covering1,75 - 2,9 MHz,AM (A3 (CW), pout 0,25 Watt telephony; powered by LT 3 V, 12 V
GB and HT 150 V dry battery (battle battery); used by British Army for short range communications between company and battalion HQ or carried as a man-pack on march; The low frequency variant of the of the Wireless Set No.68 was used for short range communications in airborne and parachute units and with combined operations. Variant R and variant P are higher frequency variants of an improved Wireless Set No.18 with it's orginal frequency of 6 - 9 Mhz.
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg):  32 lb (32 lb 0 oz) / 14.528 kg 
Mentioned in: Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Set No.68 R / T



MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.68 [Military]
For model Wireless Set No.68 R / T, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model):
From the collection of Royal Signals Museum, Blandford
 Country:
Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1943 
Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes: 6:AR8 ATP4 ARP12 ARP12 ARP12 AR8
Main principle:  Transceiver
ZF/IF 465 kHz 
Wave bands:  Short Wave (SW only) 
Details:
Power type and voltage: Dry Batteries / 150 & 12 & 3 Volt 
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org:
Model:Wireless Set No.68 [R / T]- MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material:  Leather / canvas / plastic - over other material 
Shape:  Portable set > 8 inch (also usable without mains) 
Dimensions (WHD):  11 x 17.5 x 10.5 inch / 279 x 445 x 267 mm
Range (Maximum): Voice 4.8 mi., Morse 9.6 mi. 
Notes:
Wireless set No. 68 R / T: Short range man-pack transceiver covering 3 - 5,2
MHz, AM (A3) (CW), pout 0,25 Watt telephony; powered by LT 3 V, 12 V
GB and HT 150 V dry battery (battle battery); used by British Army for
short range communications between company and battalion HQ or carried
as man-pack on march; In 1943, a low frequency variant of the original
Wireless Set No.18 with optional crystal frequency control was produced,
it became Wireless Set No.68 and was used for short range communications
in airborne and parachute units and with combined operations.
The variant R is semi tropicalised, followed by the 1944 tropicalised variant
Wireless Set No.68T which came with a different aerial base. A low frequency
variant is the Wireless Set 68P. 
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg):  32 lb (32 lb 0 oz) / 14.528 kg 
Mentioned in: Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Set No.38 Mk II



MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.38 [Military]
Select picture or schematic to display from thumbnails on the right and click for download.
For model Wireless Set No.38 Mk II, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Country:
Great Britain (UK)
Year: 1941        Category: Military Equipment 
Valves / Tubes:   5: ARP12 ARP12 ARP12 ARP12 ATP4
Main principle:  Transceiver; ZF/IF 285 kHz 
Tuned circuits:   6 AM circuit(s)
Wave bands:    Short Wave (SW only) 
Details:
Power type and voltage:   Dry Batteries / 3 & 150 Volt 
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out        2 W (unknown quality) 
from Radiomuseum.org: Model: Wireless Set No.38 [Mk II]
- MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material:         Metal case 
Shape:Very small Portable or Pocket-Set (Handheld) < 8 inch.
Range (Maximum): Voice 2 mi.
Notes:
Wireless set No. 38: Short range man-pack transceiver covering 7,3 – 9
MHz, AM (A3), pout 0,2 Watt telephony; powered by LT 3 V and HT 150 V
dry batteries; used by British Army for short range communications in infantry
patrols and for infantry tank communications; the set is connected to the battery
in the haversack, to the throat microphone and headphones by means of a Junction Box. 
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg): 22 lb (22 lb 0 oz) / 9.988 kg 
Literature/Schematics:  Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

Wireless Sender no.76



   Country: Great Britain (UK
   Manufacturer/Brand: MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)     
   Year: 1943       Category: Military Equipment
   Valves/Tubes:  3: ATS25 ATS25 5U4G
   Main Principle:Transmitter (only)
   Wave bands:Short Wave (SW only)
   Details:
   Power type and Voltage:Line / Storage batteries (perhaps also batteries) / 230 / 12 Volt
   Loudspeaker:  - No sound reproduction output.
   Power out
   from
   Radiomuseum.org:Model: Wireless Sender no.76 - MILITARY U.K. different makers 
   Material:Metal case
   Shape:Boatanchor (heavy military or commercial set).
   Dimensions (WHD):12 x 8.25 x 12.25 inch / 305 x 210 x 311 m
   Range (Nominal): Arnhem to London 260.40 mi.
   Notes:
  Wireless Set no.76: long distance CW transmitter covering six crystal controlled channels in the 2 – 12 MHz range, CW (A1), pout 9 Watts. The station can be powered by 12V DC (two 6V accumulators 40 Ah), 500 HT is generated by a rotary transformer in Power Supply Unt No.18; for main operation supply Unit, Rectifier No.14 is used. For standard use, a Aerial 110 ft, No.1 is used. The horizontal wire is supported by two 12 foot masts. Wireless Set No.76 is a easily transportable long range CW transmitter for hand operated CW communications, in earlier days, a receiver R109 has been used in conjunction with the Wireless Set No.76, after WWII, this has been replaced by a R209. To maintain contact from troops to British Airborne Division Headquarters (“Rear Link”), for BBC War correspondents and reports from outposts to the War Office, a long distance CW transmitter was needed. After having used the Admiralty Transmitter 5G, the SRDE developed Wireless Set No.X66 in 1942 and the final version Wireless Set No.76 has been introduced in 1943, 2500 sets have been built. They have been used in parachute drops as well as animal packed, Wireless Set No.76T stands for the tropicalised version.
Net weight (2.2 lb =1 kg): 30 lb(30 lb 0 oz)/13.620 kg
Mentioned in:Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

      Wireless Set No.42 


MILITARY U.K.: Wireless Set No.42 [Military] 
Select picture or schematic to display from thumbnails on the right and click for download.
For model Wireless Set No.42, MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model):
Photograph via Anton Kroes, PE1JAS, The Netherlands
Country: Great Britain (UK)
Manufacturer / Brand: 
MILITARY U.K. (different makers for same model)
Year: 1945 
Category: Military Equipment
Valves/Tubes: All miniaturized components; valves/tubes, if any, undetermined
Main principle: Transceiver
ZF/IF 500 kHz 
Wave bands:  Short Wave (SW only) 
Details
Power type and voltage:  Storage Battery for all (e.g. for car radios and
amateur radios) / 12 Volt 
Loudspeaker:  - For headphones or amp. 
Power out
from Radiomuseum.org:  Model: Wireless Set No.42
- MILITARY U.K. different makers
Material:  Metal case 
Shape:  Boatanchor (heavy military or commercial set). 
Dimensions (WHD):  12 x 8 x 8 inch / 305 x 203 x 203 mm
Range: (Maximum): Voice 7.2 mi. 
Notes:
Wireless Set No.42: shortwave band transceiver covering 1,6-12,8 MHz in three
ranges (1,6-3,3 / 3,2-6,4 / 6,4-12,8 MHz), AM (A3), CW (A1), FM (F3), pout CW/
FM 10 Watts, telephony 5 Watt. Set consists of the transceiver itself which can be
powered from separate power supply unit No.34 (for 12 V accumulator use) or a
foldable pedal generator and Accessory Case. The Wireless Set No.42 is hermeticaly
sealed and developed for use in extreme climatic conditions as man pack, animal
mounted or vehicle stations.
Net weight (2.2 lb = 1 kg):  24 lb (24 lb 0 oz) / 10.896 kg 
Mentioned in:  Wireless for the Warrior Vol. 1, L. Meulstee

The Wireless Set No.42 was sufficiently advanced for the day, that additional discussion of its development is believed merited.







Tuesday, September 3, 2019

Operation Market-Garden 75th Anniversary Encore Performance by King & Country Military Miniatures

The Red Devils are resurrected. What had been thought to be a Last Post for King and Country’s Market-Garden Series was premature. On the occasion of the 75thAnniversary of Operation Market-Garden, the Battle of Arnhem/Oosterbeek, the company has issued an additional increment of figures, and a new fighting vehicle.

MG076 Planning Market Garden - Paralleling their set commemorating the 75thAnniversary of D-Day, this is a 5 piece set depicting a large map board showing the overall operation and theArnhem/Ooosterbeek area, surrounded by four of the significant leaders of the operation; LtGen Frederick “Boy” Browning, LtGen Sir Brian Gwynne Horrocks, MajGen Robert  E. “Roy” Urquhart, and Polish MajGen Stanslaw Sosabowski.


 MG077 On The Road To Arnhem - Three Paras in route to their objectives, one carrying a Bren light machine gun, one carrying a PIAT and his rifle, and a third carrying the standard container with three rounds of additional PIAT rounds.


MG078 A Para with his rifle at the ready, standing beside a large yellow ARNHEM road sign.


MG079 A pair of Paras, one sitting with his rifle at the ready, the other with a STEN machine carbine, also at the ready.


 MG083 This set is a Humber Mk I Armoured Reconnaissance Vehicle with the tactical markings of the Guards Armoured Division, and includes the figure of LCol (Later Brigadier) J.O.E. “Joe” Vandeleur of the Irish Guards.


AIR101 Airspeed Horsa Assault Glider – Believe this to be a very limited edition (group of 5 models) in 1:30 Scale; Wing Span: 84cm (27.08in), Length overall: 64cm (23.20in) most likely in mahogany wood.


Sunday, July 21, 2019

Commemoration of the Forthcoming 75th Anniversary of Operation Market-Garden

As one of the principal themes from its inception this blog has focused on the World War II Operation Market-Garden and the Battle of Arnhem/Oosterbeek. As seemingly obscure and esoteric as the subject may seem to the average viewer, it has enjoyed a rather amazing popularity, and certainly a  highly educational and rewarding experience for the author. At the time of the compilation of this article the blog has seen over 740,000 hits from 203 nations/countries including all fifty of the United States, and the majority of its territories, all in the span of eight years (2011-2019).

On the auspicious occasion of the forthcoming 75thAnniversary in two months (September 17th), the author has pondered on how best he could appropriately commemorate the battle, and those who fought and gave their lives as an ultimate sacrifice. Most viewers over a span of time have discovered an article or two of personal interest, but may or may not have realized the full range of articles which have been written on the subject in this blog. So, while expressing most sincere thanks to both past, current and future viewers of, followers, and contributors to the blog, the author would like to provide an anthology for their convenience.

Overall Planning for Operation Market-Garden

A Combat Veteran Recalls the Battle of Arnhem

Glider Operations at Operation Market-Garden

Intelligence at the Battle of Arnhem

Communications at the Battle of Arnhem

Logistics at the Battle of Arnhem

Airborne Artillery at the Battle of Arnhem

Small Arms and Equipment of a British Airborne Division circa 1944
http://arnhemjim.blogspot.com/2012/11/some-infantry-weapons-of-1st-airborne.html
http://arnhemjim.blogspot.com/2017/07/detailed-list-of-arms-and-equipment-of.html

Airborne Ground Transportation at the Battle of Arnhem

Movies about Operation Market-Garden and the Battle of Arnhem
http://arnhemjim.blogspot.com/2015/07/a-bridge-too-far-movie-casting-mirrors.html

Toy Soldiers and Miniatures commemorating Operation Market-Garden and the Battle of Arnhem
Past Commemoration of Operation Market-Garden and the Battle of Arnhem

Operation Market-Garden Then and Now; the Battle of Arnhem and Oosterbeek (September 17-25, 1944).